Bhagavad-gita 1.21-22
by His Divine Grace A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada
London, July 18, 1973

Pradyumna (leads chanting, etc.):

arjuna uvaca senayor ubhayor madhye ratham sthapaya me ’cyuta yavad etan nirikse ’ham yoddhu-kaman avasthitan

kair maya saha yoddhavyam asmin raa-samudyame

Translation: “Arjuna said: O infallible one, please draw my chariot between the two armies so that I may see who is present here, who is desirous of fighting, and with whom I must contend in this great battle attempt.”

Prabhupada: Senayor ubhayor madhye ratham sthapaya me acyuta. Before this, Krsna was addressed as Hrsikesa. Hrsikesa we have explained. Now Krsna is addressed here Acyuta. Cyuta means fallen, and acyuta means not fallen. Just like we are fallen. We are fallen conditioned souls. In this material world we have come with an enjoying spirit. Therefore we are fallen. If one keeps his position rightly, he does not fall. Otherwise he is degraded. That is fallen condition. So all the living entities within this material world, beginning from Brahma down to the small insignificant ant, they are all fallen, fallen conditioned souls. Why they are fallen?

krsna bhuliya jiva bhoga vancha kare pasate maya tare japatiya dhare

Fallen means when the living entities are under the clutches of this material energy. That is called fallen. Just like a man, when he is under police custody, it is to be understood that he is a criminal, he is fallen. He has fallen down from good citizenship. Similarly, we are all parts and parcels of Krsna. Mamaivamso jiva-bhuta. So as part and parcel, our position is to live with Krsna. Just like this is my finger, part and parcel of my body. The finger must remain attached with this body. When this finger is cut off and fallen, although it is finger, it is no longer as important as it was formerly when it was attached with this body. So anyone who is not attached with the service of the Supreme Lord, he is fallen. This is the conclusion.

But Krsna is not fallen. If Krsna… Because He comes to reclaim us.

yada yada hi dharmasya glanir bhavati bharata abhyutthanam adharmasya tadatmanam srjamy aham [Bg. 4.7]

Krsna says that “I appear when there is discrepancies in the, I mean to say, occupational duties of the living entities.” Dharmasya glanir bhavati. We don’t translate dharma as “religion.” Religion in the English dictionary, it is “a kind of faith.” Faith can be changed. But dharma is a word which cannot be changed. If it is changed, it is to be understood artificial. Just like the water. Water is liquid, everyone knows. But sometimes water becomes hard, very hard, ice. So that is not the natural position of water. Artificially, on account of excessive cold or by artificial means the water becomes solid. But the real position of water is liquidity.

So when we are detached from the service of the Lord, this is also unnatural, unnatural. Natural position is that we must be engaged in the service of the Lord. That is our natural position. Therefore the Vaisnava kavi says that krsna bhuliya jiva bhoga vancha kare. When a living entity forgets Krsna, forgets Krsna’s position… Krsna’s position… Krsna says, bhoktaram yajna-tapasam sarva-loka-mahesvaram: [Bg. 5.29] “I am the proprietor, I am the enjoyer.” This is the Krsna’s position. He never falls down that position. Krsna is enjoyer. He keeps always that position. He never falls down. He never comes to the position of being enjoyed. That is not possible. If you want to bring Krsna on the position of being enjoyed, then you are defeated. Being enjoyed means keeping Krsna in front, I want to get some profit of sense gratification. That is our unnatural position. Krsna will never agree. Krsna will never agree. Krsna cannot be enjoyed. He is always enjoyer. He is always the proprietor. So krsna bhuliya jiva means when we forget this position of Krsna, that He is the Supreme Enjoyer, He is the supreme proprietor… This is called forgetfulness. As soon as I think that “I am enjoyer, I am proprietor,” this is my fallen stage. Krsna bhuliya jiva bhoga vancha kare. Then japatiya dhare, maya, immediately maya captures.

Therefore a conditioned soul, fallen conditioned soul, is struggling for existence. He is trying to be enjoyer, he is trying to be proprietor. That is his artificial way of life. Just like if a woman wants to become a man, that is her artificial position. She may dress herself as a man, just like in the western countries sometimes we see woman is artificially dressing like man, with hat, coat, man, riding on horse. That is artificial. So similarly, our position here in this material world is artificial. We are trying to imitate a man.

Actually the living entities are described in the Bhagavad-gita, prakrti. Prakrti means woman. And purusa means man. So the living entities are never described as purusa. Purusa is Krsna. Purusa sasvata. When Arjuna said, param brahma param dhama pavitram paramam bhavan, purusam sasvatam adyam… [Bg. 10.12]. Purusam sasvatam. Krsna is always purusa. God cannot be female. God is always male, purusa. And we are prakrti. That is described in the Bhagavad-gita. Apareyam itas tu viddhi me prakrtim para.

After describing the material energy, bhumir apo analo vayuh, earth, water, air, fire, this material…. This is also female, prakrti. Female means…. In India we have got little experience. The female is always controlled. Female is never given the position of controller. Nowadays it is going on. Just like Indira Gandhi, she has given the position of controller. This is artificial. In the history of India, greater India, Mahabharata, you will never find that a woman has been given a position of controller. No. It is not possible.

We have to take things from the sastra. In the Bhagavad-gita also woman’s position has been equated with sudra. Striyah sudras tatha vaisyas te ’pi yanti param gatim. So position must be ascertained. But this position is artificial. Here either woman or man, they are in artificial position. Because a woman may be in women’s dress, but her mind is like man. She also wants to enjoy. And the others, the so-called man…. The so-called man is also not man; he is woman. Prakrti. Apareyam itas tu viddhi me prakrtim para. Prakrti. As the earth, water, air, fire, sky, they are also controlled, the supreme controller is Krsna, similarly, the so-called man or woman in this material world, they are also controlled. Nobody can say that “I am not controlled.” Who is here? You must be controlled.

Therefore we see two prakrtis: para prakrti and apara prakrti. But all of them are controlled; none of them are the controller. And that is the difference between purusa and prakrti. Purusa means controller. And prakrti means controlled. Purusa means predominator, and prakrti means predominated. This is the difference. So Krsna does not fall from his position of predominator. Therefore He is addressed as Acyuta, Acyuta. Senayor ubhayor madhye ratham sthapaya me acyuta. Another meaning of Acyuta… Krsna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and Arjuna knows that “I am not controller; I am controlled.” He is devotee, he knows his position. Therefore he is now trying to control Krsna. He is ordering Krsna. Senayor ubhayor madhye ratham sthapaya: “My dear Krsna,” he is not addressing as Krsna—Acyuta, “now you place my chariot between the two parties.” This is ordering. That means Arjuna becoming controller. And Krsna becoming controlled. Just the opposite. Therefore Arjuna knows his subordinate position and he is ordering to Krsna. So indirectly he is begging to be excused: “My dear Krsna, I cannot order You. Order must come from You. But because You promised to carry out my order, You wanted to become my chariot driver, therefore I am ordering. Therefore I am ordering. I am not in position of ordering to You and You promised to carry out my order, and I think You are fixed up in Your that promise. Therefore I am asking you, Acyuta. You don’t fall from Your promise.” This is the… senayor ubhayor madhye ratham sthapaya me acyuta. What is the number of verse?

Devotee: Page forty-eight.

Prabhupada: Forty-eight? The next point is that Arjuna wanted to see with whom he had to fight. He had no desire to fight. That will be explained. He was fighting unwillingly. Unwillingly. Because he is a Vaisnava, unnecessarily he does not want to kill, although he is ksatriya. It is his duty. Whenever there is discrepancy, killing, as representative of Krsna… Krsna has got two business. Paritranaya sadhunam vinasaya ca duskrtam [Bg. 4.8] He has got two businesses. One business is to give protection to the devotees, sadhu, sadhu. Sadhu means devotee. Sadhu does not mean simply by changing dress, saffron color, and smoking beedies. That is not sadhu. Sadhu means devotee.

One who is devotee… That is explained in many sastras. Sadhavah sadhu-bhusanam. Sadhu-bhusanam.

titiksavah karunikah suhrdah sarva-bhutanam ajata-satravah santah sadhavah sadhu-bhusanah

This is the qualification of sadhu. Sadhu is titiksava, tolerates all kinds of miserable conditions. He is sadhu. Because this is a place of miserable condition. A sadhu learns how to tolerate. Sadhu is never disturbed. Yasmin sthito gurunapi duhkhena na vicalyate. A sadhu, who has got the shelter of Krsna, if he is placed in the severest type of dangerous condition, he is never disturbed. Just like Prahlada Maharaja, his father was putting him in so many dangerous conditions, even he was supplying with poison. He knew that “My father has given me poison to drink. All right, let me drink. If Krsna likes, He will save me. I am now put into such dangerous position. I have to drink. Father is giving poison. Who can check?” And such a big powerful Hiranyakasipu. The mother cried, requested… He forced the mother, Prahlada’s mother, “Give your son this poison.” So she begged so much, but he was a rascal demon. “No, you must give.” So the mother knew, the son knew that the rascal father is giving this poison. What can he do, a small child? “All right, let me drink.” Gurunapi duhkhena na vicalyate. He is not agitating. “All right, if Krsna likes, I will live.” This is the position of sadhu. He is not disturbed. Titiksavah. In all circumstances, he is tolerant. That is sadhu. Sadhu does not become disturbed. Titiksavah. At the same time, karunikah. He is himself disturbed, but he is merciful to others.

Just like Jesus Christ. He is being crucified, and still he is merciful: “God, these people do not know what they are doing. Please excuse them.” This is sadhu. He is personally being disturbed by the demons, but still, he is merciful to the general people. They are suffering for want of Krsna consciousness. So even up to the point of death, he is trying to preach Krsna consciousness. “Let the people be benefited. Eh, what is this material body? Even if I am killed, I am not killed. This body is killed, that’s all.” This is sadhu. Titiksavah karunikah. In one side he is tolerant, and other side, merciful.

In the material world, when one man is disturbed, he cannot do any beneficial work to any others. He is disturbed. “No, I am very much disturbed. Don’t talk with me.” No. But sadhu still goes on benefiting the people in general. Titiksavah karunikah. And what kind of benefit? The so-called rascals humanitarian work? No. Suhrdam sarva-bhutanam. He is beneficial to all kinds of living entities.

Not this rascaldom, daridra-narayana. Just like one rascal has manufactured this daridra-narayana. The poor man has become Narayana, and the goat Narayana is killed for their feeding. Not this kind of sadhu. Suhrdam sarva-bhutanam. A sadhu will not allow any kind of killing. See in the Christian religion, it is first injunction is “Thou shalt not kill.” If you want to become religious… They are simply killing, and still, they are claiming “Christian.” What kind of Christian? Simply their business is killing. So it is very difficult to find out a Christian, although they are claiming, I am “Christian.” It is very difficult. Because their business is killing. And Lord Jesus Christ ordered, first order is, “Thou shalt not kill. Thou shalt not covet.” Who is following?

So sadhu is suhrdam sarva-bhutanam. Why he should allow animal killing? They are also living entities, but for their benefit, the so- called sadhu says, “The animal has no soul.” What is this nonsense? Animal has no soul? Why? What is the difference between animal and man? What are the symptoms of possessing the soul? They are all equal. The man also eats, the animal also eats. The man also sleeps, the animal also sleeps, the man also have sex life, the animals also have sex life. The man also defends, the animals also defends. So where is the deficiency that you say that the animal has no soul?

Imperfect knowledge. Or making adjustment for their own benefit. Now they are making correction: “Thou shalt not kill,” “Thou shalt not murder.” That means it will come to human being. But the actual commandment is “Thou shalt not kill.” But these Christian people, they are making some amendment, “Thou shalt not murder.” Because murder will apply to the killing of human beings. But Lord Jesus Christ never said like that. “Thou shalt not kill.” It is applicable both for human being and for animal or even for trees. Unnecessarily you cannot kill. That is sadhu. Suhrdam sarva-bhutanam. “Don’t kill my brother, but you can kill my neighbors.” Not like that. He is not sadhu. Sadhu is kind to all living entities.

Krsna consciousness means to become kind to everyone. Therefore we say, “No meat-eating.” Meat-eating means killing the animals. Killing the animals. Why you shall kill animals? You have to take Krsna prasadam. Patram puspam phalam toyam yo me bhaktya prayacchati, tad aham asnami. Krsna says… Krsna is God. He can eat everything, everything. Krsna ate fire, you know. There was forest fire in Vrndavana. All the cowherds boys they became very much frightened, “Krsna.” “Yes, I’m ready.” He ate up all the fire. So for Krsna He could eat anything He likes. He is God. But still, He recommends, patram puspam phalam toyam yo me bhaktya prayacchati. Why? Because we have to take Krsna’s prasadam, so therefore He is recommending, “These things you can give Me.” Patram puspam phalam toyam. So that is our food. We are devotees of Krsna. We are meant for eating the remnants of foodstuff offered to Krsna.

That is our… Jihva, tara madhye… If you want to conquer the tongue, then you fix up your mind that you shall not take anything which is not offered to Krsna. Then your tongue will be controlled. Tara madhye jihva ati lobhamaya sudurmati. Tongue is the bitterest enemy of the living being. The tongue is dragging. Jihva. “Kindly give me this immediately. Kindly give me this wine immediately. Kindly give me this tea immediately. Kindly give me this cigarette immediately. Kindly give me this meat.” Why? Control. Krsna says, patram puspam phalam toyam. So we have to take prasadam, eat Krsna prasadam. Then naturally the other things will be negativated. This is the position. Suhrdam sarva-bhutanam.

So if all human beings become vegetarian, not vegetarian, but eater of the Krsna’s prasadam, all these liquor house and slaughterhouse and brothels will be closed. This is Krsna consciousness movement. We want to close these nonsense places of sinful life: brothels, illegitimate sense gratification, sex relationship, prostitution. If we are embarrassed with this sinful life, there is no possibility of becoming again acyuta. We remain cyuta, fallen. We remain fallen.

It is not so easy thing that “I do everything, whatever I like.” Some rascals preach that “Oh, religion has nothing to do with your eating. You can eat anything you like, and still you become a religious man.” This is all nonsense. Nobody can become religious man if he is attracted by sinful activities. It is not possible. You must stop sinful activities. That is first condition. Otherwise you cannot understand what there… People… Perhaps, in this Krsna conscious, except this Krsna conscious movement, all rascals, they do not know what is God. They have no clear conception of God. Because they are sinful. We can give the name, address and everything of God, clear conception, not vague idea, “God may be like this, God may be like that.” Why maybe? He is God.

venum kvanantam aravinda-dalayataksam barhavatamsam asitambuda-sundarangam kandarpa-koti-kamaniya-visesa-sobham govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami [Bs. 5.30]

Clear conception. The sastra, Brahma-samhita, clear description of God, venum kvanantam. He is playing on flute. It is not that the Muralidhara, Syamasundara, Krsna, has been imagined by some poet. No, it is described in the sastra, the form of the Lord. He is busy in playing flute, venum kvanantam. Aravinda dalayataksam [Bs. 5.30], His eyes are just like petals of the lotus flower. Venum kvanantam aravinda, barhavatamsa, there is a peacock feather on His head. Kandarpa-koti-kamaniya-visesa-sobham [Bs. 5.30], and He is so beautiful that His beauty can cut down thousands of Cupids. Cupid is supposed to be the most beautiful in this material world. Kandarpa-koti-kamaniya-visesa-sobham govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami [Bs. 5.30] Clear conception.

This is the description of God in the sastra. And when God came, Krsna came on this planet, the same description. He is playing on flute, He has got the feather, peacock feather. So this painting of Krsna is not an artist’s imagination. It is exactly the form. So here is the form of the Lord. Here is the name of the Lord. Here is the activities of the Lord. This is clear conception. A sadhu knows what is God. Or sadhu cannot know. They are thinking, “God must be like this, God may be like this, He must be a very old man,” because adi-purusa. He is the first living… In this way… So you cannot create God by imagination. That is not possible. God is God, always. You have to know simply what is God. He is never cyuta.

God never becomes fallen down from His original position. The original position is, God describes Himself, mattah parataram nanyat: “There is no more superior authority than Me.” That is God. One, if he is controlled, how he can be God? The supreme controller is God, the supreme controller is Krsna. Isvarah paramah krsnah [Bs. 5.1]. Isvarah means controller, and paramah means supreme. And who is that? Krsna. Krsna says also, mattah parataram nanyat kincid asti dhananjaya [Bg. 7.7]. So He is acyuta. He keeps His position. He never falls down. We are all fallen souls. Because our position, our Acyuta position is to serve Krsna. Because we are part and parcel of Krsna.

The same example: Just like this finger is part and parcel of my body. Its business is to serve the body. That is the business. There is no other business. A finger can pick up a rasagulla and keep it here. The finger cannot eat. Similarly, we cannot eat directly. That is our diseased condition. We have to offer Krsna. When Krsna eats, if we eat that, then we become energized. Just like you rasagulla put into the mouth. When it goes to the stomach, the finger immediately becomes reddish. The finger enjoys. Not only the finger, the eyes enjoy, the legs enjoy, because the energy is distributed. Directly we cannot be energized by eating. We must eat Krsna’s prasadam. This is principle. Jivera svarupa haya nitya krsna dasa [Cc. Madhya 20.108-109].

So if we serve Krsna, that is our Acyuta position. If we deny to serve Krsna, that is vicyuta, fallen condition. Acyuta and vicyuta. So to become Krsna conscious means acyuta-gotra. Acyuta-gotra. Gotra, perhaps you do not know. Gotra is the family tradition. According to Vedic civilization, everybody has got gotra. Gotra means of the same family, of rsis, gotra, from the rsis. So we have to become acyuta-gotra, again belonging to the family of Krsna. Now we are fallen. Therefore we have forgotten that we belong to the family of Krsna. When we revive our consciousness, Krsna consciousness, that “I belong to the Krsna’s family…” Krsna is not alone, eko bahu syama. He wants to enjoy.

So we are family members of Krsna, not void. That is another rascaldom. Why Krsna should be alone? He is so powerful, He is so opulent, have you got any experience that a powerful person, opulent person is alone? Where is that example? Any rich man, any powerful man, any king, any lord, oh, he has got so many associates. So how Krsna can be alone? Krsna is never alone. Therefore you will find always Krsna with the gopis, Krsna with the cowherds boys, Krsna with Arjuna. Krsna is never alone. So these are the conditions of becoming acyuta. So Arjuna knows all these things because he is a devotee. Therefore particularly he is addressing Krsna, senayor ubhayor madhye ratham sthapaya me acyuta. That’s all right. Thank you very much. (end)