Srimad-Bhagavatam 3.25.31
by His Divine Grace A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada
Bombay, December 1, 1974

Nitai: “Sri Maitreya said: After hearing the statement of His mother, Kapila could understand her purpose, and He became compassionate towards her because of being born of her body. He described the Sankhya system of philosophy, which is a combination of devotional service and mystic realization and is received by disciplic succession.”


viditvartham kapilo matur ittham jata-sneho yatra tanvabhijatah tattvamnayam yat pravadanti sankhyam provaca vai bhakti-vitana-yogam

So Kapiladeva is the propounder of Sankhya philosophy. This is original Kapiladeva. Later on, there was another Kapiladeva, so he is called the atheist Kapila. And this Kapiladeva is known as Devahuti- putra, “the son of Devahuti” Kapila. So sankhya-yoga, the later atheist Kapila’s sankhya-yoga, is different from this sankhya-yoga. The atheist Kapila’s sankhya-yoga is analysis of the material elements. So this analysis of material elements by the atheist Kapila is very much liked by the Western philosophers. And the sankhya-yoga explained, propounded, by Devahuti-putra Kapila is practically unknown.

So this Kapila, Devahuti, son of Devahuti Kapila, His sankhya-yoga means bhakti-vitana-yogam, how bhakti, devotional service to the Lord, is expanded. That is sankhya-yoga. And how it is received, that is also stated here, tattva amnayam yad pravadanti sankhyam. Amnayam, by disciplic succession. No philosophical speculation, but as it is received by predecessor, by tradition, amnayam. Tattva amnayam. We cannot manufacture tattva. That is improper way of understanding the truth. Generally, the Western philosophers, they try to understand the Absolute Truth by the ascending process. There are two processes of understanding the Absolute Truth. One is called ascending process, or inductive logic, and another process is descending process, or deductive logic. So ascending process is based on speculation, and descending process is based on fact.

This evening we were talking about Bhagavad-gita, that Bhagavad-gita is understood by the descending process, as Krsna said. Krsna says in the Bhagavad-gita that this yoga system… Bhagavad-gita is also yoga system. That is bhakti-yoga. Although there are description of karma, jnana, and the mystic yoga and ultimately bhakti-yoga, but actually it is meant for bhakti-yoga, the Bhagavad-gita. Those who are jnanis, speculative, for them also, it is described. And those who are hatha-yogis, they are also described there. But ultimately, the conclusion is bhakti-yoga. Just like in the Sixth Chapter of Bhagavad-gita the yoga system is described. The yoga system is described, that one has to go in a secluded place, and he has to sit down straight, right angular, and see the front portion of the nose, and the eyes half closed. In this way the hatha-yoga system, or astanga-yoga system, is described in the Bhagavad-gita. But when Arjuna said that “This system of yoga is very difficult for me. Krsna, I cannot concentrate my mind in this way”…

cancalam hi manah krsna pramathi balavad drdham tasyaham nigraham manye vayor iva suduskaram

Five thousand years ago a personality like Arjuna, who was so qualified that he could talk with Krsna as ordinary friend… How much exalted he was, just we can imagine. And born in the royal family, very exalted position, great warrior. He said that “Krsna, I cannot execute this yoga system. It is not possible.” Cancalam hi manah krsna pramathi balavad drdham, tasyaham nigraham manye. “My mind is so disturbed that to control the mind is exactly like that, to control the wind.” Suppose there is very heavy wind, and if one tries to stop it by spreading his hand, is it possible? It is not possible. He has given this example. Pramathi balavad drdham. Mind is so uncontrollable, just like madman. Mind’s business is like that. Immediately I am accepting something and again rejecting. Everyone has got this experience. Therefore he frankly said that “To control the mind is not possible for me. I cannot do so.”

So now just try to understand the… A personality like Arjuna is not ordinary man. He was advised by Krsna to practice this yoga system, meditation, generally. Actually yoga system means meditation. Dhyanavasthita-tad-gatena manasa pasyanti yam yoginah [SB 12.13.1]. The yogis, they dhyanavasthita manasa, mind being absorbed in meditation and concentrates the mind on Visnu form of the Lord, four-handed Visnu. That is dhyanavasthita-tad-gatena manasa pasyanti yam yoginah [SB 12.13.1].

yam brahma varunendra-rudra-marutah stunvanti divyaih stavair vedaih sanga-pada-kramopanisadair gayanti yam sama-gah dhyanavasthita-tad-gatena manasa pasyanti yam yogino yasyantam na viduh surasura-gana devaya tasmai namah

So this yoga system is meant for persons who are too much bodily attached, this hatha-yoga system. And otherwise, real yoga system is the sankhya-yoga or bhakti-yoga, real yoga system. This is preliminary. Therefore when Arjuna declined, that “I cannot execute the yoga system,” so Krsna, in order to pacify Arjuna… Because he was friend—Krsna thought that Arjuna is thinking unable to execute this yoga—He pacified him by saying ultimately, “My dear Arjuna, don’t be agitated.” Indirectly He said that “You are a first-class yogi.” “How is that, I am first-class yogi?” “Now, because you are always thinking of Me.” Arjuna, he did not know anything but Krsna. Krsna, when He placed Himself divided into two in the battlefield… Because it was a family fight, so Krsna said that “I can divide Myself.” Both of them approached. Duryodhana approached and Arjuna also approached, “Krsna, You become my side.” So Krsna said that “I have got eighteen aksauhini, division of soldiers. That is one side. And I personally, one side.” So Arjuna (Duryodhana) thought that “What shall I do simply by taking Krsna? And He says that ‘I’ll not fight. If I go to any side, I’ll not fight.’ ” So Arjuna (Duryodhana) thought it wise that “Let me take His soldiers, eighteen divisions, many thousands of elephants, horses, chariot.” There is estimate, very big number of elephants, horses. I don’t remember exactly. But… So Duryodhana decided to take the soldiers of Krsna. (aside:) That child may be… But Arjuna thought that “If I get Krsna in my side, that is sufficient. I don’t want His soldiers.”

So Krsna was so friendly and very loving friend, not ordinary friend. Therefore Krsna said, “My dear Arjuna, don’t be disappointed because you cannot execute this astanga-yoga. The first-class yogi is he who always thinks of Me.” Yoginam api sarvesam mad-gatenantar-atmana [Bg. 6.47]. One who has taken Krsna within his heart and always thinking of Krsna, satatam smartavyah visnuh, this is the system. This is meditation. If one is thinking of Krsna twenty- four hours, that is the first-class meditation. You are seeing Krsna here, standing with Radharani. And if you see always, then you naturally you get impression of Krsna within the heart. And if you serve Krsna… Those who are engaged in service, just like they are offering this foodstuff, Krsna. They have prepared this foodstuff very nicely, thinking that “Krsna will eat. Let us do it very cleanly and attentively.” And whatever they can offer, first-class thing… That is meditation, because they are thinking of Krsna, “This foodstuff will be taken by Krsna. This dress will be used by Krsna. These flowers will be offered to the lotus feet of Krsna.” Real meditation is this. And that is the first-class yoga. Therefore Krsna is advising in the Seventh Chapter that “If you cannot think of Me, then you can think of Me in your ordinary dealings.” Raso ’ham apsu kaunteya: “I am the taste of the water.”

So that, this yoga system, we have to practice, this yoga system. This is called sankhya-yoga. That is explained here, provaca vai bhakti-vitana-yogam. The more you think of Krsna… Satatam cintayanto mam, satatam kirtayanto mam [Bg. 9.14]. These are advised in the Bhagavad-gita. If you always chant Hare Krsna mantra, then you remember Krsna. Immediately the form of Krsna is awakened within your heart. And Krsna says, yoginam api sarvesam mad-gatenantar-atmana: “Always within the heart…” That is the sankhya-yoga system, or perfect yoga system, bhakti-yoga-vitanam. And Krsna says personally,

yoginam api sarvesam mad-gatenantar-atmana sraddhavan bhajate yo mam sa me yuktatamo matah [Bg. 6.47]

They are first-class yogi. So anyway, some way or other, if you can think of Krsna always… That is… We have named Krsna consciousness, always conscious of Krsna. Then you become the first-class sankhya-yogi. Bhakti-vitanam.

So Kapiladeva could understand the desire of His mother. The mother was submissive because to understand the sankhya-yoga, bhakti-yoga, it requires… The first condition is submission. Tad viddhi pranipatena [Bg. 4.34] You cannot understand the sankhya-yoga system or bhakti-yoga system by falsely being proud that you are very learned scholar or speculator. These things will not help. You have to hear about Krsna very submissively and accepting, not challenging. Then you will be able to understand. Sthane sthitah sruti-gatam tanu-van-manobhih. You remain in your position. It doesn’t matter what you are, simply you hear about Krsna. There are so many things about Krsna we can hear. Even if we are not educated, we can hear from a person who can speak rightly. But that person must be selected, not ordinary person, not professional person, but here it is said, tattva amnayam. Amnayam means by disciplic succession. We have to accept a positive party.

Just like in political activities you accept some party, Congress party or this party or that party. That is the system, even in politics. Similarly, you have to accept a party of devotee. There are not different parties; they are of the same party. Just like the political parties may be different, but their aim is how to improve the condition of the country or the people. The aim is the same, but they may be a little different in their ways. Similarly, there are four amnaya party. Amnaya means disciplic succession. One party is coming from Lord Brahma, and one party is coming from Laksmi, goddess of fortune, or the consort of Narayana, Visnu. That is called Brahma-sampradaya and the Sri-sampradaya. Sri. Sri means Laksmi. Sri means beauty. Sri means fortune. Therefore, according to Vedic system, the “sri” word is added before anyone’s name, sri. So there is Sri-sampradaya, and there is Kumara-sampradaya, and there is Rudra-sampradaya. There are four sampradayas of Visnu, er, Vaisnava. So Brahma-sampradaya, Sri-sampradaya, Rudra- sampradaya, and Kumara-sampradaya—they are called amnaya. If you want to know the truth, then you have to accept. Tattva amnayam. Tattva amnayam yat pravadanti sankhyam. This is Sankhya philosophy. You try to understand the Absolute Truth through the disciplic succession of amnaya, amnaya.

So in the Vaisnava sampradaya these four sampradaya, this Brahma is Brahma-sampradaya and Sri-sampradaya. The Brahma- sampradaya is, at the present moment, is represented by the Madhva-sampradaya. Just like we are belonging to the Madhva- gaudiya-sampradaya, our original sampradaya from the Madhvacarya. So in that sampradaya, disciplic succession, there was Madhavendra Puri. From Madhavendra Puri his disciple is Isvara Puri, and Isvara Puri’s disciple is Lord Caitanya. And we are coming through the disciplic succession of Lord Caitanya. Therefore our sampradaya is called Madhva-gaudiya-sampradaya. But we are in the amnaya-sampradaya. We are not upstart. We have not manufactured a sampradaya. It is coming from Lord Brahma. Similarly, there is Ramanuja-sampradaya. They are coming from Sri- sampradaya. Similarly, there is Visnusvami. They are coming from Lord Siva, Rudra-sampradaya. And there is Kumara-sampradaya, Nimbaditya-sampradaya. So sastra says, sampradaya-vihina ye mantras te nisphala matah: “If you do not belong to any sampradaya, party of bhakta or devotees, then nisphala matah, your verdict or conclusion is nisphala, without any fruit.” It is not acceptable.

So our this Krsna consciousness movement is to present the Krsna consciousness, or the conclusion given by Krsna, or the conclusion in the Bhagavad-gita, in this amnaya Sankhya philosophy, disciple after disciple, not that “I know little more ABCD. I am, therefore, a big scholar. I can interpret Bhagavad-gita in my own way.” This is useless. This is useless. You cannot make your own comment. But that is not also good. So many commentaries which have been made without this amnaya, Sankhya process, they are useless. There is no effect. This is very essential. Therefore Bhagavan Krsna says in the Fourth Chapter, evam parampara praptam imam rajarsayo viduh [Bg. 4.2]. That is required, parampara, amnaya, disciplic succession. Otherwise it will be useless. This is the secret of success. You have to accept the same philosophy as it was contemplated by Brahma, by Narada, by Brahmacarya, er, Madhvacarya, by Madhavendra Puri, by Isvara Puri, by… You cannot make any new thing beyond the scope of the amnaya Sankhya philosophy system. That is called amnaya. Because we are imperfect. We must first of all know that we are all imperfect. However great scholar I may be, because my senses are imperfect, therefore, whatever conclusion I make by my so-called scholarship, that is imperfect. Therefore all these scientists, philosophers, they use this word “perhaps,” “it may be,” because there is no right conclusion. There is no right conclusion. He is simply speculating.

So speculative knowledge cannot be perfect. Just like we are sitting here. If there is some sound on the roof… Now we are, say, one hundred persons sitting here. We can speculate that “This sound may be for this reason.” That, all of them, may be imperfect, and if somebody says from the roof that “This sound was caused for this reason,” that is perfect. That is perfect because he has got direct experience. That I was speaking in the evening, that you have to accept Bhagavad-gita by this amnaya-patha. Tattva amnayam. Krsna says to Arjuna that this bhagavad-bhakti-yoga or Bhagavad-gita yoga… That is a yoga. Yoga means which connects, and viyoga means which disconnect. So we are now disconnected with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Now we have to connect again our relationship. That is called yoga. That yoga is described in the Bhagavad-gita as karma-yoga, jnana-yoga, and astanga-yoga, and at last bhakti-yoga.

So bhakti-yoga is the last status of yoga system. Therefore it is said, bhakti-vitana-yogam. Bhakti… Just like you are going upstair, and step by step, when you go to the topmost step, that is the end of your going up, similarly, the karma-yoga, jnana-yoga, and dhyana-yoga, and then bhakti-yoga, so ultimate end is bhakti-yoga. So if you have got, gone few steps, that is karma-yoga, if you have got few more steps, that is jnana-yoga, and if you go few more steps, that is dhyana-yoga, and when you reach the ultimate status, that is called bhakti-yoga. The step is the same. Mama vartmanuvartante manusyah partha sarvasah. Everyone is going, trying to reach the ultimate Absolute Truth. But it is simply a partial understanding. By jnana-yoga, dhyana-yoga, karma-yoga, you can understand partially the Absolute Truth. But bhakti-yoga you can understand completely. Therefore Krsna says in the Bhagavad-gita, bhaktya mam abhijanati [Bg. 18.55]. He does not say, “By jnana, by karma, by meditation, one can understand Me fully.” No. He does not say. He says clearly, bhaktya mam abhijanati yavan yas casmi tattvatah: [Bg. 18.55] “Tattvatah, in truth what I am, that can be understood only by bhakti-yoga.” You see Bhagavad-gita.

So to understand the Absolute Truth you have to accept this sankhya-yoga or bhakti-vitana-yogam. Then you will understand very… Because question was, by Devahuti, that manda-dhih sukham buddhyeya. Sukham buddhyeya: “Very easily, without any much trouble, I may understand. You kindly describe in this way—the Absolute Truth I can understand very easily.” So that is bhakti-yoga. In the Ninth Chapter of Bhagavad-gita it is said, susukham kartum avyayam. Susukham. If you practice bhakti-yoga, it is very easy, at the same time very pleasing, very pleasing. Susukham kartum avyayam. And avyayam. Avyayam means not deteriorating. Svalpam apy asya dharmasya trayate mahato bhayat. If you execute even partially, it has got so potency that it will lead you more and more to the ultimate goal of life. This is called perfect sankhya-yoga.

So this Krsna consciousness movement is meant for giving education to the people of this sankhya-yoga system or bhakti-yoga system, because it is the recommended process by authorities. And all the amnaya, origin of the amnaya, just like Lord Brahma, Lord Siva, then Kapiladeva—here is Kapiladeva—they are mahajana. Mahajana means great authorities. Dharmasya tattvam nihitam guhayam mahajano yena gatah sa panthah. It is very difficult to understand the path of perfection. Therefore the sastra recommended that “You follow the mahajana.” This is called amnaya. “You follow the mahajana.” And who are mahajana? They are also described in the sastras: svayambhur naradah sambhuh [SB 6.3.20]. Svayambhu means Lord Brahma. Lord Brahma is… Another name is Svayambhu. He was found in the lotus flower emanating from the navel of Visnu. So practically, he was not born of father and mother; therefore he is called Svayambhu. Svayambhur naradah sambhuh [SB 6.3.20]. Narada Muni is authority. And Sambhu, Lord Siva. Therefore there is Rudra-sampradaya, amnaya, because he is authority. Svayambhur naradah sambhuh kumarah [SB 6.3.20], this Kumara. And Kumara means catuhsana, Sanat-kumara, catuhsana. They are also authorities. And Kapiladeva, here, Devahuti-putra Kapiladeva, He is also authority. In this way, Lord Brahma, Lord Siva, Kapiladeva, Manu, and Bhismadeva, Janaka, Janaka Maharaja, Bhismadeva, and Sukadeva Gosvami, Prahlada Maharaja—in this way there are twelve authorities, and all of them are following the Sankhya philosophy or bhakti-yoga, all of them.

So we have to accept one of these mahajana. Mahajano yena gatah sa panthah. Then you will be successful. Tarko ’pratisthah: If you want to learn the Absolute Truth by logic and argument, it will never be possible. Logician… You may be one logician, better logician than me, and another logician may be better than you. But the Absolute Truth is avan manasa-gocara. By logical arguments how you can reach? That is not possible. Tarko ’prati… Therefore it is useless waste of time. Tarko ’pratisthah srutayo vibhinnah. Scriptures, even you take the Vedic scriptures, there are so many: four Vedas… Some of them are following the Yajur-veda, some of them following Rg-veda, some of them Sama-veda, Atharva-veda. Then there are Upanisads. Then there are Puranas, then Brahma-sutra, the Ramayana, Mahabharata. They are all right. But because I am ill-advised, I take conclusion differently. Srutayo vibhinnah. Or you take Bible or Koran. So by simply reading all the scriptures, it is very difficult also. So srutayo vibhinna nasav munir yasya matam na bhinnam. Muni, means thoughtful men, philosophers, they are also defeating, one thoughtful man, another thoughtful man. Unless he defeats another man, philosopher, he does not become a very big philosopher. Therefore it is said, nasav munir yasya matam na bhinnam. Why? You cannot become a muni unless you propound a different system of philosophy. So this is the position. Dharmasya tattvam nihitam guhayam. Therefore the truth of spiritual life is very complicated. It is very difficult to understand. Then how I shall be able to understand? The conclusion is mahajano yena gatah sa panthah. You follow the mahajana. Out of these twelve mahajana, you follow any one of them, and you will be successful.

So our proposition is that Krsna is the original mahajana. Krsna instructed Brahma. Brahma is also mahajana. And Krsna instructed everyone. Just like Bhagavad-gita. He is instructing everyone. How? Aham adir hi devanam: “All the demigods, they are subordinate to Me.” Aham adih: “I am the original.” Everyone has learned from Krsna. In the Srimad-Bhagavatam it is said, tene brahma hrda adi-kavaye. So Krsna is teaching personally just like Kapiladeva is teaching personally. So you take Kapiladeva’s philosophy, Sankhya philosophy, Krsna’s philosophy, Bhagavad-gita, but try to understand as He says. Don’t interpret in the wrong way. So this is amnaya-tattvam. So if we fix up the idea how to receive transcendental knowledge and how to practice it, if we simply take the instruction of these mahajana, amnaya, so that will be very beneficial and easy also.

So Kapiladeva will describe the Sankhya philosophy to His mother, and not only mother, but tanvabhijatah. Naturally, if we take birth from my mother, I have got natural affection for my mother, but Devahuti is not ordinary mata. She is very submissive. Therefore it is said that jata-snehah. Naturally there is affection, and when Kapiladeva saw that “This woman… Woman is supposed to be less intelligent, but she is very submissive and My mother,” in both ways He became compassionate, that “She is eager to know about the truth, and she is so submissive, and after all, I have taken, I have received this body from this woman, My mother. So let Me try to give her the best of the philosophical conclusion.” And that is Sankhya philosophy. He will speak from the next verse.

Thank you very much. (end)