Srimad-Bhagavatam: Canto 1: “Creation”
by His Divine Grace A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada

Chapter Sixteen

How Pariksit Received the Age of Kali



suta uvaca

tatah pariksid dvija-varya-siksaya

mahim maha-bhagavatah sasasa ha

yatha hi sutyam abhijata-kovidah

samadisan vipra mahad-gunas tatha


sutah uvaca—Suta Gosvami said; tatah—thereafter; pariksit—Maharaja Pariksit; dvija-varya—the great twice-born brahmanas; siksaya—by their instructions; mahim—the earth; maha-bhagavatah—the great devotee; sasasa—ruled; ha—in the past; yatha—as they told it; hi—certainly; sutyam—at the time of his birth; abhijata-kovidah—expert astrologers at the time of birth; samadisan—gave their opinions; vipra—O brahmanas; mahat-gunah—great qualities; tatha—true to that.


Suta Gosvami said: O learned brahmanas, Maharaja Pariksit then began to rule over the world as a great devotee of the Lord under the instructions of the best of the twice-born brahmanas. He ruled by those great qualities which were foretold by expert astrologers at the time of his birth.


At the time of Maharaja Pariksit’s birth, the expert astrologer-brahmanas foretold some of his qualities. Maharaja Pariksit developed all those qualities, being a great devotee of the Lord. The real qualification is to become a devotee of the Lord, and gradually all the good qualities worthy of possession develop. Maharaja Pariksit was a maha-bhagavata, or a first-class devotee, who was not only well versed in the science of devotion but also able to convert others to become devotees by his transcendental instructions. Maharaja Pariksit was, therefore, a devotee of the first order, and thus he used to consult great sages and learned brahmanas, who could advise him by the sastras how to execute the state administration. Such great kings were more responsible than modern elected executive heads because they obliged the great authorities by following their instructions left in Vedic literatures. There was no need for impractical fools to enact daily a new legislative bill and to conveniently alter it again and again to serve some purpose. The rules and regulations were already set forth by great sages like Manu, Yajnavalkya, Parasara and other liberated sages, and the enactments were all suitable for all ages in all places. Therefore the rules and regulations were standard and without flaw or defect. Kings like Maharaja Pariksit had their council of advisers, and all the members of that council were either great sages or brahmanas of the first order. They did not accept any salary, nor had they any necessity for such salaries. The state would get the best advice without expenditure. They were themselves sama-darsi, equal to everyone, both man and animal. They would not advise the king to give protection to man and instruct him to kill the poor animals. Such council members were not fools or representatives to compose a fool’s paradise. They were all self-realized souls, and they knew perfectly well how all living beings in the state would be happy, both in this life and in the next. They were not concerned with the hedonistic philosophy of eat, drink, be merry and enjoy. They were philosophers in the real sense, and they knew well what is the mission of human life. Under all these obligations, the advisory council of the king would give correct directions, and the king or executive head, being himself a qualified devotee of the Lord, would scrutinizingly follow them for the welfare of the state. The state in the days of Maharaja Yudhisthira or Maharaja Pariksit was a welfare state in the real sense of the term because no one was unhappy in that state, be he man or animal. Maharaja Pariksit was an ideal king for a welfare state of the world.



sa uttarasya tanayam

upayema iravatim

janamejayadims caturas

tasyam utpadayat sutan


sah—he; uttarasya—of King Uttara; tanayam—daughter; upayeme—married; iravatim—Iravati; janamejaya-adin—headed by Maharaja Janamejaya; caturah—four; tasyam—in her; utpadayat—begot; sutan—sons.


King Pariksit married the daughter of King Uttara and begot four sons, headed by Maharaja Janamejaya.


Maharaja Uttara was the son of Virata and maternal uncle of Maharaja Pariksit. Iravati, being the daughter of Maharaja Uttara, was the cousin-sister of Maharaja Pariksit, but cousin-brothers and -sisters were allowed to get married if they did not belong to the same gotra, or family. In the Vedic system of marriage, the importance of the gotra, or family, was stressed. Arjuna also married Subhadra, although she was his maternal cousin-sister.

Janamejaya: One of the rajarsi kings and the famous son of Maharaja Pariksit. His mother’s name was Iravati, or according to some, Madravati. Maharaja Janamejaya begot two sons of the names Jnatanika and Sankukarna. He celebrated several sacrifices in the Kuruksetra pilgrimage site, and he had three younger brothers named Srutasena, Ugrasena and Bhimasena II. He invaded Taksala (Ajanta), and he decided to avenge the unlawful curse upon his great father, Maharaja Pariksit. He performed a great sacrifice called Sarpa-yajna, to kill the race of serpents, including the taksaka, which had bitten his father to death. On request from many influential demigods and sages, he had to change his decision to kill the race of snakes, but despite stopping the sacrifice, he satisfied everyone concerned in the sacrifice by rewarding them properly. In the ceremony, Mahamuni Vyasadeva also was present, and he personally narrated the history of the Battle of Kuruksetra before the King. Later on by the order of Vyasadeva, his disciple Vaisampayana narrated before the King the subject matter of Mahabharata. He was much affected by his great father’s untimely death and was very anxious to see him again, and he expressed his desire before the great sage Vyasadeva. Vyasadeva also fulfilled his desire. His father was present before him, and he worshiped both his father and Vyasadeva with great respect and pomp. Being fully satisfied, he most munificently gave charities to the brahmanas present at the sacrifice.



ajaharasva-medhams trin

gangayam bhuri-daksinan

saradvatam gurum krtva

deva yatraksi-gocarah


ajahara—performed; asva-medhan—horse sacrifices; trin—three; gangayam—the bank of the Ganges; bhuri—sufficiently; daksinan—rewards; saradvatam—unto Krpacarya; gurum—spiritual master; krtva—having selected; devah—the demigods; yatra—wherein; aksi—eyes; gocarah—within the purview.


Maharaja Pariksit, after having selected Krpacarya for guidance as his spiritual master, performed three horse sacrifices on the banks of the Ganges. These were executed with sufficient rewards for the attendants. And at these sacrifices, even the common man could see demigods.


It appears from this verse that interplanetary travel by the denizens of higher planets is easy. In many statements in Bhagavatam, we have observed that the demigods from heaven used to visit this earth to attend sacrifices performed by influential kings and emperors. Herein also we find that during the time of the horse sacrifice ceremony of Maharaja Pariksit, the demigods from other planets were visible even to the common man, due to the sacrificial ceremony. The demigods are not generally visible to common men, as the Lord is not visible. But as the Lord, by His causeless mercy, descends to be visible to the common man, similarly the demigods also become visible to the common man by their own grace. Although celestial beings are not visible to the naked eyes of the inhabitants of this earth, it was due to the influence of Maharaja Pariksit that the demigods also agreed to be visible. The kings used to spend lavishly during such sacrifices, as a cloud distributes rains. A cloud is nothing but another form of water, or, in other words, the waters of the earth transform into clouds. Similarly, the charity made by the kings in such sacrifices are but another form of the taxes collected from the citizens. But, as the rains fall down very lavishly and appear to be more than necessary, the charity made by such kings also seems to be more than what the citizen needs. Satisfied citizens will never organize agitation against the king, and thus there was no need in changing the monarchial state.

Even for a king like Maharaja Pariksit there was need of a spiritual master for guidance. Without such guidance one cannot make progress in spiritual life. The spiritual master must be bona fide, and one who wants to have self-realization must approach and take shelter of a bona fide spiritual master to achieve real success.



nijagrahaujasa virah

kalim digvijaye kvacit

nrpa-linga-dharam sudram

ghnantam go-mithunam pada


nijagraha—sufficiently punished; ojasa—by prowess; virah—valiant hero; kalim—unto Kali, the master of the age; digvijaye—on his way to conquer the world; kvacit—once upon a time; nrpa-linga-dharam—one who passes in the dress of a king; sudram—the lower class; ghnantam—hurting; go-mithunam—a cow and bull; pada—on the leg.


Once, when Maharaja Pariksit was on his way to conquer the world, he saw the master of Kali-yuga, who was lower than a sudra, disguised as a king and hurting the legs of a cow and bull. The King at once caught hold of him to deal sufficient punishment.


The purpose of a king’s going out to conquer the world is not for self-aggrandizement. Maharaja Pariksit went out to conquer the world after his ascendance to the throne, but this was not for the purpose of aggression on other states. He was the Emperor of the world, and all small states were already under his regime. His purpose in going out was to see how things were going on in terms of the godly state. The king, being the representative of the Lord, has to execute the will of the Lord duly. There is no question of self-aggrandizement. Thus as soon as Maharaja Pariksit saw that a lower-class man in the dress of a king was hurting the legs of a cow and a bull, at once he arrested and punished him. The king cannot tolerate insults to the most important animal, the cow, nor can he tolerate disrespect for the most important man, the brahmana. Human civilization means to advance the cause of brahminical culture, and to maintain it, cow protection is essential. There is a miracle in milk, for it contains all the necessary vitamins to sustain human physiological conditions for higher achievements. Brahminical culture can advance only when man is educated to develop the quality of goodness, and for this there is a prime necessity of food prepared with milk, fruits and grains. Maharaja Pariksit was astonished to see that a black sudra, dressed like a ruler, was mistreating a cow, the most important animal in human society.

The age of Kali means mismanagement and quarrel. And the root cause of all mismanagement and quarrel is that worthless men with the modes of lower-class men, who have no higher ambition in life, come to the helm of the state management. Such men at the post of a king are sure to first hurt the cow and the brahminical culture, thereby pushing all society towards hell. Maharaja Pariksit, trained as he was, got the scent of this root cause of all quarrel in the world. Thus he wanted to stop it in the very beginning.



saunaka uvaca

kasya hetor nijagraha

kalim digvijaye nrpah

nrdeva-cihna-dhrk sudra-

ko ’sau gam yah padahanat

tat kathyatam maha-bhaga

yadi krsna-kathasrayam


saunakah uvaca—Saunaka Rsi said; kasya—for what; hetoh—reason; nijagraha—sufficiently punished; kalim—the master of the age of Kali; digvijaye—during the time of his world tour; nrpah—the King; nr-deva—royal person; cihna-dhrk—decorated like; sudrakah—lowest of the sudras; asau—he; gam—cow; yah—one who; pada ahanat—struck on the leg; tat—all that; kathyatam—please describe; maha-bhaga—O greatly fortunate one; yadi—if, however; krsna—about Krsna; katha-asrayam—related with His topics.


Saunaka Rsi inquired: Why did Maharaja Pariksit simply punish him, since he was the lowest of the sudras, having dressed as a king and having struck a cow on the leg? Please describe all these incidents if they relate to the topics of Lord Krsna.


Saunaka and the rsis were astonished to hear that the pious Maharaja Pariksit simply punished the culprit and did not kill him. This suggests that a pious king like Maharaja Pariksit should have at once killed an offender who wanted to cheat the public by dressing like a king and at the same time daring to insult the purest of the animals, a cow. The rsis in those days, however, could not even imagine that in the advanced days of the age of Kali the lowest of the sudras will be elected as administrators and will open organized slaughterhouses for killing cows. Anyway, although hearing about a sudraka who was a cheat and insulter of a cow was not very interesting to the great rsis, they nevertheless wanted to hear about it to see if the event had any connection with Lord Krsna. They were simply interested in the topics of Lord Krsna, for anything that is dovetailed with the narration of Krsna is worth hearing. There are many topics in the Bhagavatam about sociology, politics, economics, cultural affairs, etc., but all of them are in relation with Krsna, and therefore all of them are worth hearing. Krsna is the purifying ingredient in all matters, regardless of what they are. In the mundane world, everything is impure due to its being a product of the three mundane qualities. The purifying agent, however, is Krsna.



athavasya padambhoja-

makaranda-liham satam

kim anyair asad-alapair

ayuso yad asad-vyayah


athava—otherwise; asya—of His (Lord Krsna’s); pada-ambhoja—lotus feet; makaranda-liham—of those who lick the honey from such a lotus flower; satam—of those who are to exist eternally; kim anyaih—what is the use of anything else; asat—illusory; alapaih—topics; ayusah—of the duration of life; yat—that which is; asat-vyayah—unnecessary waste of life.


The devotees of the Lord are accustomed to licking up the honey available from the lotus feet of the Lord. What is the use of topics which simply waste one’s valuable life?


Lord Krsna and His devotees are both on the transcendental plane; therefore the topics of Lord Krsna and of His pure devotees are equally good. The Battle of Kuruksetra is full of politics and diplomacy, but because the topics are related with Lord Krsna, the Bhagavad-gita is therefore adored all over the world. There is no need to eradicate politics, economics, sociology, etc., which are mundane to the mundaners. To a pure devotee, who is actually related with the Lord, such mundane things are transcendental if dovetailed with the Lord or with His pure devotees. We have heard and talked about the activities of the Pandavas, and we now are dealing with the topics of Maharaja Pariksit, but because all these topics are related to the Lord Sri Krsna, they are all transcendental, and pure devotees have great interest in hearing them. We have already discussed this matter in connection with the prayers of Bhismadeva.

Our duration of life is not very long, and there is no certainty of when we shall be ordered to leave everything for the next stage. Thus it is our duty to see that not a moment of our life is wasted in topics which are not related with Lord Krsna. Any topic, however pleasant, is not worth hearing if it is devoid of its relation to Krsna.

The spiritual planet, Goloka Vrndavana, the eternal abode of Lord Krsna, is shaped like the whorl of a lotus flower. Even when the Lord descends to any one of the mundane planets, He does so by manifesting His own abode as it is. Thus His feet remain always on the same big whorl of the lotus flower. His feet are also as beautiful as the lotus flower. Therefore it is said that Lord Krsna has lotus feet.

A living being is eternal by constitution. He is, so to speak, in the whirlpool of birth and death due to his contact with material energy. Freed from such material energy, a living entity is liberated and is eligible to return home, back to Godhead. Those who want to live forever without changing their material bodies should not waste valuable time with topics other than those relating to Lord Krsna and His devotees.



ksudrayusam nrnam anga

martyanam rtam icchatam

ihopahuto bhagavan

mrtyuh samitra-karmani


ksudra—very small; ayusam—of the duration of life; nrnam—of the human beings; anga—O Suta Gosvami; martyanam—of those who are sure to meet death; rtam—eternal life; icchatam—of those who desire it; iha—herein; upahutah—called for being present; bhagavan—representing the Lord; mrtyuh—the controller of death, Yamaraja; samitra—suppressing; karmani—performances.


O Suta Gosvami, there are those amongst men who desire freedom from death and get eternal life. They escape the slaughtering process by calling the controller of death, Yamaraja.


The living entity, as he develops from lower animal life to a higher human being and gradually to higher intelligence, becomes anxious to get free from the clutches of death. Modern scientists try to avoid death by physiochemical advancement of knowledge, but alas, the controller of death, Yamaraja, is so cruel that he does not spare even the very life of the scientist himself. The scientist, who puts forward the theory of stopping death by advancement of scientific knowledge, becomes himself a victim of death when he is called by Yamaraja. What to speak of stopping death, no one can enhance the short period of life even by a fraction of a moment. The only hope of suspending the cruel slaughtering process of Yamaraja is to call him to hear and chant the holy name of the Lord. Yamaraja is a great devotee of the Lord, and he likes to be invited to kirtanas and sacrifices by the pure devotees, who are constantly engaged in the devotional service of the Lord. Thus the great sages, headed by Saunaka and others, invited Yamaraja to attend the sacrifice performed at Naimisaranya. This was good for those who did not want to die.



na kascin mriyate tavad

yavad asta ihantakah

etad-artham hi bhagavan

ahutah paramarsibhih

aho nr-loke piyeta

hari-lilamrtam vacah


na—not; kascit—anyone; mriyate—will die; tavat—so long; yavat—as long as; aste—is present; iha—herein; antakah—one who causes the end of life; etat—this; artham—reason; hi—certainly; bhagavan—the representative of the Lord; ahutah—invited; parama-rsibhih—by the great sages; aho—alas; nr-loke—in human society; piyeta—let them drink; hari-lila—transcendental pastimes of the Lord; amrtam—nectar for eternal life; vacah—narrations.


As long as Yamaraja, who causes everyone’s death, is present here, no one shall meet with death. The great sages have invited the controller of death, Yamaraja, who is the representative of the Lord. Living beings who are under his grip should take advantage by hearing the deathless nectar in the form of this narration of the transcendental pastimes of the Lord.


Every human being dislikes meeting death, but he does not know how to get rid of death. The surest remedy for avoiding death is to accustom oneself to hearing the nectarean pastimes of the Lord as they are systematically narrated in the text of Srimad-Bhagavatam. It is advised herein, therefore, that any human being who desires freedom from death should take to this course of life as recommended by the rsis headed by Saunaka.



mandasya manda-prajnasya

vayo mandayusas ca vai

nidraya hriyate naktam

diva ca vyartha-karmabhih


mandasya—of the lazy; manda—paltry; prajnasya—of intelligence; vayah—age; manda—short; ayusah—of duration of life; ca—and; vai—exactly; nidraya—by sleeping; hriyate—passes away; naktam—night; diva—daytime; ca—also; vyartha—for nothing; karmabhih—by activities.


Lazy human beings with paltry intelligence and a short duration of life pass the night sleeping and the day performing activities that are for naught.


The less intelligent do not know the real value of the human form of life. The human form is a special gift of material nature in the course of her enforcing stringent laws of miseries upon the living being. It is a chance to achieve the highest boon of life, namely to get out of the entanglement of repeated birth and death. The intelligent take care of this important gift by strenuously endeavoring to get out of the entanglement. But the less intelligent are lazy and unable to evaluate the gift of the human body to achieve liberation from the material bondage; they become more interested in so-called economic development and work very hard throughout life simply for the sense enjoyment of the temporary body. Sense enjoyment is also allowed to the lower animals by the law of nature, and thus a human being is also destined to a certain amount of sense enjoyment according to his past or present life. But one should definitely try to understand that sense enjoyment is not the ultimate goal of human life. Herein it is said that during the daytime one works “for nothing” because the aim is nothing but sense enjoyment. We can particularly observe how the human being is engaged for nothing in the great cities and industrial towns. There are so many things manufactured by human energy, but they are all meant for sense enjoyment, and not for getting out of material bondage. And after working hard during the daytime, a tired man either sleeps or engages in sex habits at night. That is the program of materialistic civilized life for the less intelligent. Therefore they are designated herein as lazy, unfortunate and short-lived.



suta uvaca

yada pariksit kuru-jangale ’vasat

kalim pravistam nija-cakravartite

nisamya vartam anatipriyam tatah

sarasanam samyuga-saundir adade


sutah uvaca—Suta Gosvami said; yada—when; pariksit—Maharaja Pariksit; kuru-jangale—in the capital of Kuru’s empire; avasat—was residing; kalim—the symptoms of the age of Kali; pravistam—entered; nija-cakravartite—within his jurisdiction; nisamya—thus hearing; vartam—news; anati-priyam—not very palatable; tatah—thereafter; sarasanam—arrows and bow; samyuga—having gotten a chance for; saundih—martial activities; adade—took up.


Suta Gosvami said: While Maharaja Pariksit was residing in the capital of the Kuru empire, the symptoms of the age of Kali began to infiltrate within the jurisdiction of his state. When he learned about this, he did not think the matter very palatable. This did, however, give him a chance to fight. He took up his bow and arrows and prepared himself for military activities.


The state administration of Maharaja Pariksit was so perfect that he was sitting in his capital peacefully. But he got the news that the symptoms of the age of Kali had already infiltrated into the jurisdiction of his state, and he did not like this news. What are the symptoms of the age of Kali? They are (1) illicit connection with women, (2) indulgence in meat-eating, (3) intoxication and (4) taking pleasure in gambling. The age of Kali literally means the age of quarrel, and the abovementioned four symptoms in human society are the root causes for all kinds of quarrel. Maharaja Pariksit heard that some of the people of the state had already taken to those symptoms, and he wanted to take immediate steps against such causes of unrest. This means that at least up to the regime of Maharaja Pariksit, such symptoms of public life were practically unknown, and as soon as they were slightly detected, he wanted to root them out. The news was not palatable for him, but in a way it was, because Maharaja Pariksit got a chance to fight. There was no need to fight with small states because everyone was peacefully under his subordination, but the Kali-yuga miscreants gave his fighting spirit a chance for exhibition. A perfect ksatriya king is always jubilant as soon as he gets a chance to fight, just as a sportsman is eager when there is a chance for a sporting match. It is no argument that in the age of Kali such symptoms are predestined. If so, then why was there preparation for fighting out such symptoms? Such arguments are offered by lazy and unfortunate men. In the rainy season, rain is predestined, and yet people take precautions to protect themselves. Similarly, in the age of Kali the symptoms as above mentioned are sure to infiltrate into social life, but it is the duty of the state to save the citizens from the association of the agents of the age of Kali. Maharaja Pariksit wanted to punish the miscreants indulging in the symptoms of Kali, and thus save the innocent citizens who were pure in habit by culture of religion. It is the duty of the king to give such protection, and Maharaja Pariksit was perfectly right when he prepared himself to fight.



svalankrtam syama-turanga-yojitam

ratham mrgendra-dhvajam asritah purat

vrto rathasva-dvipapatti-yuktaya

sva-senaya digvijayaya nirgatah


su-alankrtam—very well decorated; syama—black; turanga—horses; yojitam—tackled; ratham—chariot; mrga-indra—lion; dhvajam—flagged; asritah—under the protection; purat—from the capital; vrtah—surrounded by; ratha—charioteers; asva—cavalry; dvipapatti—elephants; yuktaya—thus being equipped; sva-senaya—along with infantry; digvijayaya—for the purpose of conquering; nirgatah—went out.


Maharaja Pariksit sat on a chariot drawn by black horses. His flag was marked with the sign of a lion. Being so decorated and surrounded by charioteers, cavalry, elephants and infantry soldiers, he left the capital to conquer in all directions.


Maharaja Pariksit is distinguished from his grandfather Arjuna, for black horses pulled his chariot instead of white horses. He marked his flag with the mark of a lion, and his grandfather marked his with the mark of Hanumanji. A royal procession like that of Maharaja Pariksit surrounded by well-decorated chariots, cavalry, elephants, infantry and band not only is pleasing to the eyes, but also is a sign of a civilization that is aesthetic even on the fighting front.



bhadrasvam ketumalam ca

bharatam cottaran kurun

kimpurusadini varsani

vijitya jagrhe balim


bhadrasvam—Bhadrasva; ketumalam—Ketumala; ca—also; bharatam—Bharata; ca—and; uttaran—the northern countries; kurun—the kingdom of the Kuru dynasty; kimpurusa-adini—a country beyond the northern side of the Himalayas; varsani—parts of the earth planet; vijitya—conquering; jagrhe—exacted; balim—strength.


Maharaja Pariksit then conquered all parts of the earthly planet—Bhadrasva, Ketumala, Bharata, the northern Kuru, Kimpurusa, etc.—and exacted tributes from their respective rulers.


Bhadrasva: It is a tract of land near Meru Parvata, and it extends from Gandha-madana Parvata to the saltwater ocean. There is a description of this varsa in the Mahabharata (Bhisma-parva 7.14–18). The description was narrated by Sanjaya to Dhrtarastra.

Maharaja Yudhisthira also conquered this varsa, and thus the province was included within the jurisdiction of his empire. Maharaja Pariksit was formerly declared to be the emperor of all lands ruled by his grandfather, but still he had to establish his supremacy while he was out of his capital to exact tribute from such states.

Ketumala: This earth planet is divided into seven dvipas by seven oceans, and the central dvipa, called Jambudvipa, is divided into nine varsas, or parts, by eight huge mountains. Bharata-varsa is one of the above-mentioned nine varsas, and Ketumala is also described as one of the above varsas. It is said that in Ketumala varsa, women are the most beautiful. This varsa was conquered by Arjuna also. A description of this part of the world is available in the Mahabharata (Sabha 28.6).

It is said that this part of the world is situated on the western side of the Meru Parvata, and inhabitants of this province used to live up to ten thousand years (Bhisma-parva 6.31). Human beings living in this part of the globe are of golden color, and the women resemble the angels of heaven. The inhabitants are free from all kinds of diseases and grief.

Bharata-varsa: This part of the world is also one of the nine varsas of the Jambudvipa. A description of Bharata-varsa is given in the Mahabharata (Bhisma-parva, Chapters 9 and 10).

In the center of Jambudvipa is Ilavrta-varsa, and south of Ilavrta-varsa is Hari-varsa. The description of these varsas is given in the Mahabharata (Sabha-parva 28.7–8) as follows:

nagarams ca vanams caiva
nadis ca vimalodakah
purusan deva-kalpams ca
naris ca priya-darsanah

adrsta-purvan subhagan
sa dadarsa dhananjayah
sadanani ca subhrani
naris capsarasam nibhah

It is mentioned here that the women in both these varsas are beautiful, and some of them are equal to the Apsaras, or heavenly women.

Uttarakuru: According to Vedic geography the northernmost portion of Jambudvipa is called Uttarakuru-varsa. It is surrounded by the saltwater ocean from three sides and divided by Srngavan Mountain from the Hiranmaya-varsa.

Kimpurusa-varsa: It is stated to be situated north of the great Himalaya Mountain, which is eighty thousand miles in length and height and which covers sixteen thousand miles in width. These parts of the world were also conquered by Arjuna (Sabha 28.1–2). The Kimpurusas are descendants of a daughter of Daksa. When Maharaja Yudhisthira performed a horse sacrifice yajna, the inhabitants of these countries were also present to take part in the festival, and they paid tributes to the Emperor. This part of the world is called Kimpurusa-varsa, or sometimes the Himalayan provinces (Himavati). It is said that Sukadeva Gosvami was born in these Himalayan provinces and that he came to Bharata-varsa after crossing the Himalayan countries.

In other words, Maharaja Pariksit conquered all the world. He conquered all the continents adjoining all the seas and oceans in all directions, namely the eastern, western, northern and southern parts of the world.

Next verse (SB1.16.13-15)